The practice of certain forms of meditation would have the effect of lowering blood pressure, according to the results of several studies. This decrease would be comparable to that observed when one follows the recommendations of health professionals: lose weight, exercise and abstain from salt and alcohol.

Meditation to lower blood pressure

Researchers at Maharishi University of Management (home of Transcendental Meditation) and the University of Kentucky School of Medicine analyzed the results of 23 clinical trials, with control groups, conducted in 960 hypertensive subjects.1 Six of these trials involved Transcendental Meditation (a Hindu technique). 1 Six of these trials involved Transcendental Meditation (a technique of Hindu origin). The results showed that the practice of Transcendental Meditation lowered blood pressure by an average of

-5 mmHg/-2.8 mmHg (millimeter of mercury column). The results generally obtained with an appropriate diet and exercise program are -4.25 mmHg/-3.1 mmHg.

The other trials analyzed in this latest study involved biofeedback, relaxation, autogenic training, stress management and other meditation techniques applied alone or in combination. Some of these trials also showed interesting results in relation to blood pressure reduction, but it was not possible to draw a clear conclusion due to conflicting data or too small a number of subjects.

In the summer of 2007, the US medical authorities published a report2 on the state of medical knowledge regarding the beneficial effects of various stress management techniques on cardiovascular health. After analyzing the results of 55 clinical trials, the authors confirmed the blood pressure-lowering effects of Transcendental Meditation, Qi Gong (of Chinese origin) and Zen Buddhism (of Indo-Japanese origin).

 It's easy to feel overwhelmed at work. Stress becomes part of everyday life and makes tasks much longer and less enjoyable. Organizing yourself well at the office helps limit this stress.

organized and not being stressed at the office

organized and not being stressed

1- A personalized office

Having a personal organizational structure of one's workspace is essential in order to stay in control. Patterns, colors, shapes and office layout can help make it easier to recognize work elements. So don't hesitate to indulge in a little extravagance. The visual plays a very important role in recognition and appropriation of one's work environment. In addition, keeping your desk in order avoids excessive stress because everything is easier to find and manage.

2- Organized information

E-mails should never accumulate in the inbox. Messages offer filing methods: it is recommended to use them by creating folders specific to each type of message. This method of categorization makes it easier to find one's e-mails and to remember to reply to an important message. To make sure you don't omit an e-mail that required follow-up, you can use flagging. It is advisable to classify as you receive it or once a week.

3- Phone calls can wait

The ringing of the phone should not interrupt work too frequently as distraction leads to several omissions. During periods of heavy work, it is recommended to leave the telephone on an answering machine: in addition to putting a stop to the ringing, the answering machine allows you to read messages smoothly. In addition, making a frequent contact sheet and placing it next to the unit will save time.

4- Lists

Lists are the organization tools par excellence. It is suggested to always maintain three kinds of lists, each with a specific format: lists of long-term projects (on a large sheet of paper), lists of weekly occupations (on a half sheet of paper) and lists of daily tasks (on a large post-it).

5- A calendar... up to date!

Maintaining and updating a calendar allows you to have a global view of deadlines and appointments. The calendar allows you to impose time limits on yourself: it is possible to note the date when a project must be completed in order to stay within the time constraints imposed personally or professionally.

6- Focus on one work at a time

Starting several projects at the same time is not productive and causes panic and stress. In addition, it makes you more vulnerable to forgetfulness. To perform only one task at a time, limits can be imposed, such as viewing messages, which can be restricted to 4 times a day.

7- Reserving time slots for pleasure

In order to decompress at work, it is important to allow yourself some time to relax and to devote yourself to pleasant and personal activities that have nothing to do with professional occupations.

8- Automation

Several tools have been created to facilitate small recurring tasks, so do not hesitate to use them. Using messaging tools to create a signature or standard messages can save a lot of time.

9- The bulletin board a visual memory tool

A bulletin board allows you to have in front of you the elements to be memorized. Using it with colored post-it notes facilitates a personal and efficient organization. Moreover, it is easy to manage because completed items can be deleted from the board. The arrangement of colors and patterns will create a visual memory that speeds up the retrieval of information.

10- An idea map

Organizing your ideas is often a difficult step. To better organize your ideas, the Englishman Tony Buzan has developed the concept of map minding. This form of organization allows better management of note taking, brainstorming, project structuring, speech preparation and organization of computer files. A completely free software allows you to have your personalized map of ideas on the computer: Xmind.

keeping children safe at home 

keeping children safe at home

1- Be vigilant

Parental vigilance is essential for children to be safe at home. Never leave a baby unattended in the bathtub, on the high chair or on the changing table. Also, always make sure to pick up hazardous materials after use, turn pot handles toward the stove, keep hot liquids away from children, and soak hot pots in cold water after use.

2- Proper storage

Storage allows for organization and prevents the child's access to harmful materials or products. Sharp and dangerous objects should always be stored in an inaccessible drawer. It is also advisable to reserve a cupboard that is high up and equipped with an anti-opening safety system for toxic products.

3- Use protective accessories

Protective accessories are tools that enhance safety in the home. A gate can be put at the entrance of the kitchen to prevent baby from entering when the environment is not totally safe. The same gate can be installed in front of the stairs. For dangerous products, it is advisable to prefer bottles equipped with an anti-opening safety system and containing Bitrex (= very bitter substance that causes the product to be spit out immediately). Thermostatic mixers that let the water flow only at the desired temperature can be installed on the shower faucet. In addition, windows should be equipped with a safety system that makes them more difficult to open. It is also advisable to use corner guards, and fixing furniture to the wall helps prevent injuries to children.

4- Preventing drowning

It only takes 10 cm of water to cause drowning in a baby. That's why you should never leave a child unattended in the bath and use a bathtub adapted to toddlers. In addition, it is strongly recommended that a fence with a padlock be installed around the family pool.

5- Beware of burns

The kitchen is the best environment for burns. Using an oven with a cold door and always storing the equipment after use can prevent serious injuries. Also, keeping the child away from the oven during meal preparation will keep him or her away from danger.

6- Drop baby where needed

It is important to always tie the child to the high chair and to lean the chair against the wall to avoid falls. It is important to put the child to sleep in his own adapted bed (with bars) rather than in the parents' bed from where he can easily fall.

7- Teaching children

Children should be taught safe behaviours at an early age. For example, they should be taught to always turn on cold water before hot tap water, not to touch electrical outlets, etc.

8- Preventing falls

Slippery floors, carpets, stairs and windows can be a source of dangerous falls for children. It is therefore important to ensure their safety. Installing a non-skid mat in the bath prevents all members of the family from falling badly.

9- Buying safe toys

The recommended age on the packaging is a good indication of whether the toy is appropriate for the child. For example, toys for toddlers do not contain small pieces that can be swallowed and are not a choking hazard.

10- Check the condition of the material

Checking the condition of the equipment in the house is essential to prevent accidents. Bare or worn wires, broken toys, etc. should be avoided.

 In Canada, 62% of employees say their main source of stress comes from their workplace. In France, the situation is similar: 89% of managers say they feel they work too much.


Workplace stress

Workplace stress can spread beyond professional boundaries. The society in which we live is increasingly individualistic and competitive, and personal fulfillment is closely linked to performance. In order to better control one's nervousness, it is imperative to learn to relax. Starting the day off on the right foot is crucial for a less stressful day. Waking up 15 minutes earlier and using this time to do some stretching exercises or to eat a good breakfast is one of the keys to a stress-free day.

Changing environments can cut the line with work problems. Don't hesitate to go out for a few minutes to get some fresh air. Fresh air helps to clear your head and take your mind off things for a while.

Working on breathing can help the body to relax. To relieve the pressure of work, it is advisable to inhale air for 5 seconds, hold it for 5 seconds and then exhale it for as long as possible. Executing 10 breathing cycles is an effective method to achieve relaxation.

Posture is often a major cause of stress: a poor posture on the desk chair strains muscles and causes physical stress. It is important to ensure that office equipment is adjusted for personal comfort and that it is adapted to the needs of each employee.

Stress breaks are the most effective way to provide a relaxing moment during the working day. These breaks must be dedicated solely to a relaxation activity. Listening to music, playing on the Internet or watching a funny video are examples of effective stress breaks.

Naps are, finally, a way to invigorate your body and mind to perform better during the rest of the day. With a minimum duration of 5 minutes, these naps allow you to clear your mind and rest to accumulate energy. For this kind of rest, close your eyes and take slow ventral breaths that allow a better circulation of oxygen.

 Every year, during exam periods, about 20% of the students use psychic stimulants to facilitate learning.  But memory problems also affect the elderly: 70% of people over 70 years of age are affected and consider them inevitable. However, there are natural ways to maintain it, and even optimize it.

How to stimulate your memory?

During periods of fatigue or stress, memory problems can occur: forgetfulness, loss of concentration or reduced performance. Nutrition, sleep and physical activity play a fundamental role in maintaining and improving this function.


1. Eat a full breakfast

Studies1-2 clearly show that eating breakfast in the morning reduces memory lapses and drops in concentration: the higher the carbohydrate content, the more pronounced these effects are3. 3 Therefore, choose foods that naturally contain carbohydrates and are high in fibre, and reduce those that are fatty or high in added sugars.

Prefer cereals, whole fruits, eggs, cheese, milk, yogurt, chicken, peanut butter, etc...

To be limited: bread, croissant, muffin, jam, fruit juice, bacon, sausage, maple syrup, etc...

Example :

1 kiwi, 1 cottage cheese, 1 pineapple compote and 1 whole grain bagel.

2. Reduce and distribute energy intake

Low-calorie meals cause less drowsiness than fatty, high-carbohydrate meals4. Eating too many carbohydrates at lunchtime causes a sedative effect, linked to the production of serotonin. Therefore, avoid sweet desserts, potatoes, white rice or corn at lunchtime. It is best to divide your daily food intake into 3 meals, if possible at regular times. Nutritionists also recommend having a snack in the afternoon5-6.

Example of a snack:

1 piece of fruit and a piece of cheese with a 20% fat content.

1 cereal bar and nuts, and a soy beverage

3. Choosing foods rich in omega-3, B vitamins and iron

The human being has about 100 billion neurons. They can connect to each other through a sheath that surrounds them, called myelin. Since myelin is composed mostly of fat, it is recommended to consume omega-3 fatty acids to strengthen the structure of the neurons7-8. However, avoid saturated fatty acids, which are associated with the formation of blood cholesterol.

Prefer fatty fish, nuts, linseed oil, rapeseed oil, wheat bran, etc...

Limit: cold cuts, butter, sauces, poultry skin, cheese, etc...

Vitamins B (especially B1, B6, B9 and B12) play an essential role in memory. They are part of the manufacturing process of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter essential for learning functions.

To privilege: salmon, liver, spinach, eggs, offal, pistachios, ...

Iron deficiency is detrimental to intellectual performance. Its role is to transport oxygen to the brain. Red meat, green vegetables, quinoa and shellfish are excellent sources of iron.

Healthy lifestyle

1. Sleep well for better retention

Studies9 have clearly shown that memorization of new information occurs during sleep. It is during this phase that the "consolidation" of memory takes place, allowing the development of new skills and the retention of information. Thus, a lack of sleep will inhibit the learning process. The choice of staying up all night to revise more is therefore largely debatable. It is rather advised to sleep 6 to 8 hours to enjoy the benefits of sleep.

Furthermore, attention can be affected when the body lacks sleep. The liveliness, concentration and alertness are strongly disturbed.

Finally, it should be noted that a short nap (less than 30 minutes) would allow a gain of one to two hours of sleep per night. The nap is essentially composed of deep slow wave sleep, which is the most restorative for the body. It is therefore also beneficial for memory: many studies show that it increases intellectual performance and frees up creativity.

2. Recommended sports activity

In recent years, scientists have become interested in physical activity as a means of preserving and improving cognitive abilities. Studies have shown that the development of cardiovascular capacity can lead to improved neurocognitive performance. Aerobic exercise (30 minutes per week) and weight training are therefore highly recommended.

 Whether occasional or persistent, constipation affects 1 in 4 people and concerns women in 80% of cases. Constipation can occur when stools are hard, dry and difficult to evacuate. In general, it is diagnosed below 3 bowel movements per week. It most often results in bloating and intestinal pain, but can lead to serious complications. Discover our 10 tips to fight it.


Anti-constipation remedy: flax seeds

1. Urinate regularly

Flax seeds contain a substance called "mucilage". Made up of polysaccharides, it swells on contact with water and produces a viscous substance similar to gelatin, which explains its laxative effect.

Commission E and ESCOP recognize its effectiveness in treating temporary constipation. Simply add it to applesauce, milk, muesli, oatmeal, etc., and it's ready to use.

2. Drink lots of water

In general, 2 to 3 liters of water per day is recommended, but a good part of this is provided by food. In case of constipation, the ideal is to drink 6 to 8 glasses of water daily, preferably between meals.

Mineral waters rich in magnesium have a mild laxative effect and should be preferred.

3. Eating prunes

Prunes have a remarkable laxative action. This particularity would be linked to the presence of dihydroxyphenylisatin, a substance that stimulates peristalsis (contractions of the intestine). Sorbitol, a type of sugar it contains, is also said to contribute to this.

In addition, like other dried fruits, prunes contain dietary fibre, which is also useful in the treatment of constipation.

4. Eat a high-fibre diet

All foods of plant origin contain dietary fibre, unlike those of animal origin. A distinction is made between soluble fibre (which forms viscous gels on contact with water), and insoluble fibre (which has a water retention capacity). Both types of fibers are useful in the fight against constipation.

The foods that contain the most are legumes (peas, beans, lentils, ...), cereals and artichokes.

5. Playing sports

Practicing a sport (at least once a week) is a very good way to stimulate the abdominal muscles and strengthen the abdominal belt.  

To prevent constipation, most cardiovascular and endurance activities are effective: hiking, walking, running, swimming or cycling.

6. Choosing Psyllium

Psyllium is a species of plantain native to India. The fibers it contains have the property of absorbing several times their weight in water. In the intestines, they form a gel, thus increasing the weight of the stool.

In case of constipation, soak 10 g of psyllium in 100 ml of warm water for a few minutes. Drink immediately to prevent the mixture from thickening and gelling.

7. Do not hold back

It is important not to hold back when the "urge" is felt. As this is not always easy when you have neither time nor a toilet, it is enough to "educate" your intestine by going to the toilet at set times.

Get into the habit of going half an hour after a meal, taking as much time as you need. If you experience difficulties, don't try too hard and try again later.

8. Use oat bran

Oats contain a large amount of soluble and insoluble fibre, which has positive effects on the digestive system.  Fibre increases the volume of the alimentary bolus and changes the consistency of the stool. This promotes their circulation in transit.

To consume it, add oat bran to yoghurts, fruit compotes, bread preparations, pies, cakes, muffins, ...

9. Opt for soups and broths

The consumption of vegetables in the form of broth or soup reinforces their natural water intake. Starting the meal with a vegetable soup is therefore an excellent habit to combat constipation and calorie overload.

Soups rich in small pieces of vegetables will be more effective. Vegetables that have been ground or filtered are less rich in fiber.

10. Don't forget the fruits

Plums, kiwis, passion fruit, raspberries, blackberries... The fruits are bursting with pectin, whose benefits on constipation are recognized. This fiber activates the regulation of the intestinal transit, and contributes to the quality of the bacterial flora.

When it is possible, it is necessary to eat the previously washed skin, because it is it which contains the most pectin.  In the same way, after having pressed a fruit to extract the juice, the ideal is to add the pulp to the juice obtained.


Position. The lumbar vertebrae form part of the spine, or rachis, a bony structure located between the head and the pelvis. The spine is the skeletal base of the trunk, located dorsally and along the midline. It starts below the skull and extends into the pelvic region (1). The spinal column consists of an average of 33 bones, called vertebrae (2). These bones are connected to each other to form an axis, which has a double S-shape. The lumbar vertebrae, of which there are 5, form a forward-facing curve (3). They form the lumbar region of the lower back and are located between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum. The lumbar vertebrae are called L1 to L5.

lumbar vertebrae

Structure. Each lumbar vertebra has the same basic structure (1)(2) :

  • The body, the ventral part of the vertebra, is voluminous and solid. It carries the weight of the skeletal axis.
  • The vertebral arch, the dorsal part of the vertebra, surrounds the vertebral foramen.
  • The vertebral foramen is the central, hollowed part of the vertebra. The stack of vertebrae and foramina forms the vertebral canal, which is crossed by the spinal cord.

Joints and insertions. The lumbar vertebrae are connected to each other by ligaments. They also have several articular surfaces to ensure their mobility. Intervertebral discs, fibrocartilages comprising a nucleus, are located between the bodies of neighboring vertebrae (1)(2).

Musculature. The spinal column is covered by the musculature of the back.

Functions of the lumbar vertebrae

Supportive and protective role. The lumbar vertebrae, which make up the spinal column, help support the head and protect the spinal cord.

Role in mobility and posture. The lumbar vertebrae make up the spinal column and help maintain the trunk's posture and thus maintain the standing position. The structure of the vertebrae allows many movements such as torsion of the trunk, bending of the trunk or traction.

Pathologies and associated problems

Back pain. It is defined as a localized pain most often originating in the spine and generally affecting the muscle groups surrounding it. Low back pain is localized pain in the lumbar region. Sciatica, characterized by pain starting in the lower back and extending into the leg. Common, they are due to compression of the sciatic nerve, which can sometimes be caused by the lumbar vertebrae. Different pathologies can be at the origin of these pains (4):

  • Degenerative pathologies. Osteoarthritis is characterized by wear and tear of the cartilage protecting the bones of the joints. (5) Disc herniation corresponds to the expulsion at the back of the intervertebral disc nucleus by wear and tear of the latter. This can result in compression of the spinal cord or sciatic nerve.
  • Deformations of the spine. Deformations of the spine can occur. Scoliosis is a lateral displacement of the spine (6). Lordosis is associated with an accentuated curvature of the lumbar vertebrae. (6)
  • Lumbago. This pathology is due to deformations or tears of the ligaments or muscles located in the lumbar vertebrae.


Drug treatments. Depending on the diagnosed pathology, certain medications may be prescribed as painkillers.

Physiotherapy. Back re-education can be carried out with physiotherapy or osteopathy sessions.

Surgical treatment. Depending on the diagnosed pathology, surgery may be performed on the lumbar region.

Exploration and examinations

Clinical examination. Observation of back posture by the physician is the first step in identifying an abnormality.

Radiological examinations. Depending on the suspected or proven pathology, additional examinations may be performed such as an X-ray, ultrasound, CT scan, MRI or CT scan.


Research work. Researchers at an Inserm unit have reportedly succeeded in transforming adipose stem cells into cells that can replace intervertebral discs. The goal of this work is to renew the worn intervertebral discs, which cause certain lumbar pains. (7)

 What is it?

The prevention of lumbago

Complementary approaches

Acute lumbago, another name for lumbago, refers to a pain localized in the lower back, commonly known as "lumbago", caused by an unfortunate movement. This condition is muscular and has nothing to do with the kidneys. There are two types of low back pain: chronic low back pain (long and difficult to treat) and acute low back pain (transient), also called lumbago. Lumbago is usually mild, but often painful. In most cases, it can be treated with rest and medication.

What is a lumbago?

What causes lumbago?

Lumbago is most often caused by damage to the intervertebral discs, the shock absorbers located between the vertebrae that age with age. This disc damage causes irritation or a slight compression of a nerve.  This phenomenon, already painful by itself, triggers a strong muscular contraction in reaction to this, in order to block the lumbar region, and a lumbago appears.


The lumbago can appear in particular after :

  • a false movement, sometimes harmless;
  • an abrupt effort;
  • carrying a heavy load. It is in the latter case that lumbago occurs most frequently;
  • often when a gesture is not made in a good posture.

What are the risk factors for lumbago?

People who have one or more of the following risk factors are more likely to be affected by a lumbago :

  • Poor postural hygiene, i.e. lack of knowledge of the gestures that protect the back,
  • Overweight
  • A sedentary lifestyle,
  • Demanding physical work (heavy loads, exposure to vibrations),
  • A pregnancy that results in a greater arching of the back,
  • Insufficient abdominal or back muscles
  • Age,
  • Stress,
  • Shift or repetitive work,
  • Sports or professional activities that increase the risk of false movements,
  • History of back trauma, scoliosis, spinal deformities.
  • All these risk factors favour the transition to chronic lumbago.

How to recognize lumbago?

Lumbago is a sudden and intense pain in the lower back, in the lumbar region, that occurs during an effort, sometimes even though it is minimal. Sometimes the pain can spread to the upper buttocks and extend to one or both thighs. The pain is similar to that felt in cases of sciatica. If the pain goes beyond the knee, it is called sciatica or low back pain.

What to do in case of lumbago?

The severity of a lumbago is not proportional to the pain. While it is true that the pain is intense and appears suddenly, it disappears spontaneously in 90% of cases in 6 to 8 weeks, although some of it, almost half, disappears in 48 hours; 10% become chronic low back pain.

The basic treatment is based on :

- Moderation of movements, guided by pain. Rest is advised, but not bed rest, as it leads to muscle wasting, a factor that slows down healing and recurrence. It is therefore preferable to move around as much as possible, avoiding gestures likely to reawaken the pain. That said, for the first 24 to 48 hours it is possible to stay in bed if the pain is very intense. This bed rest should not last longer.

- Administration of paracetamol or acetaminophen. The latter is used for its analgesic properties: it reduces pain. The recommended dose of paracetamol varies between 500 mg and 1 g depending on the intensity of the pain, at a frequency of 3 or 4 times a day. It is preferable to respect a minimum interval of 4 hours between each dose.

- Anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin can be used, but they are not much more effective than paracetamol (acetaminophen), and have significantly more side effects.

- Osteopathy is an aid to reduce the duration of the attack. It is recommended to consult a well-trained osteopath in an osteopathic school, preferably a physiotherapist or doctor. The ANSES (national health safety agency) recognizes the short-term interest of osteopathy in acute low back pain.

If the sudden pain in the lower back is accompanied by sudden incontinence or the inability to urinate, insensitivity or anaesthesia in the legs, fever, burning when urinating, chills, you should immediately call a doctor in emergency and stay in bed.

 We have the annoying habit of forcing ourselves to keep our backs straight all day long in front of our computer screens.  However, this would not be the best way to avoid back pain.

Sitting up straight all day will promote back pain.

Avoid sitting with your back straight

The goal of the game is simply to avoid back pain. It is indeed the great evil of our time when, sitting most of the day without moving, our muscles tense up and our back suffers. And what if there were other solutions than to rush to your physiotherapist when the pain has become unbearable or to swallow (too much) painkillers? This is in any case the opinion of a specialist in the field. 

Dr. Srour, physiotherapist and ergonomist, is the author of "Même pas mal! Le guide des bons gestes et des bonnes postures" published by First. In his reflection, he tells all those who suffer from back pain not to limit themselves to a simple upright sitting position, for hours on end, in front of his screen. In this case, it is always the same muscles that work. Change your reflex: move!

Change position regularly

The movement to avoid pain was also part of the latest Medicare advertising campaign. To avoid muscle twitching, change your position, relax, blow, walk, stand up, take regular breaks, stand on your toes, raise your arms and stretch your legs. And don't forget to adapt your workstation to be as comfortable as possible.

"Generally speaking, it's essential to raise the screen to eye level first. If the screen is too low, as is often the case with laptops, you will tend to roll over and feel pain," warns Frédéric Srour. The specialist also reminds us that it is necessary to move to use as many muscles as possible, relax those that work the most and promote better blood circulation throughout the body.

 Joint pain, whether or not related to osteoarthritis, can be relieved using simple methods. We offer 5 natural solutions.


Glucosamine is effective against sensitive joints. Manufactured naturally by the body, it protects joint cartilage. It is called osteoarthritis when this production has diminished: the joints can become painful. To remedy this, apply a glucosamine-based cream locally after an effort or simply in case of pain. In tablet form, the dosage is 1.5 g glucosamine sulphate per day.
sensitive joints

Cayenne pepper

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends the use of cayenne pepper creams or tablets. Thanks to its active compound, capsaicin, it helps to combat pain related to sensitive joints or osteoarthritis. It is advised to apply locally up to 4 times per day a cream enriched with 0.025% to 0.075% capsaicin. The effects appear approximately 2 weeks after the first applications.


Acupuncture also helps to reduce the pain caused by joint disorders, although it does not completely cure them. It helps to reduce inflammation related to osteoarthritis, thus alleviating pain and improving mobility. It seems to be especially effective in cases of osteoarthritis of the knee. However, a minimum of 5 to 6 sessions is required to see an improvement.


Hydrotherapy in all its forms (balneotherapy, thermal cures, spa, etc...) seems to give good results on articulatory disorders. Warm water helps to relax muscles, and exercises and massages performed in water are more beneficial for osteoarthritis than those performed out of water. Hydrotherapy thus helps restore mobility while relieving pain.

Devil's Claw

Devil's Claw or Harpagophytum is an effective natural remedy for joint sensitivity, thanks to its anti-inflammatory action. It can also be used by sportsmen and women to prevent pain. It is advised to take 3 to 6 tablets per day with meals. A treatment based on devil's claw must be taken at least 2 or 3 months to be able to observe the first effects.

What is a chronic disease?


What is a chronic disease? Accepting the disease Living with a chronic disease Impact on social life Impact on professional life Impact on intimate life

Diabetes, asthma, fibromyalgia... Living with a chronic disease on a daily basis is far from easy.

chronic disease

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a "chronic disease" is a long-term condition that evolves over time.

It is not always easy to recognize a person with a chronic disease. Yet, this type of disease is responsible for 17 million deaths worldwide each year1. In France, it is estimated that 15 million people (approximately 20% of the population) are affected by a chronic disease2 compared to 30% of the population in Canada3.

Depending on the severity and degree of disability, these diseases may include diabetes, heart disease, cancer, stroke, hypertension, polyarthritis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease.

Accepting the disease

A phase of revolt and incomprehension often follows the announcement of the disease and can last several months. Some conditions require the consultation of a psychologist since it is essential that the patient accept his or her illness. Then, it will be a matter of learning to live with it. This implies changing one's lifestyle: healthy eating, the need for physical activity, taking medication, etc...

The doctor who diagnoses a chronic disease plays a fundamental role: he or she guides the patient and presents him or her with solutions while making him or her understand that there is no definitive cure for the disease.

Daily life with a chronic disease

Personal development is essential to be able to continue living as normally as possible. The patient is active and contributes to his treatment. After the shock following the announcement of the chronic disease, it is necessary to acquire skills in order to reorganize one's life with the pathology.

The first step is to understand the illness and to be able to talk about it to those around them. Then, the patient must learn how to self-manage, by being able to diagnose and take charge of himself in the absence of the caregiver. It will often be necessary for the patient to organize himself according to his illness without letting it take control of his life.

Daily life with a chronic disease

At the age of 26, I suffer from ankylosing spondylitis...

"Very physically active, I had wanted to become a professional firefighter since I was 8 years old. My life was all about sports... One day, I started to have a little pain in my feet after some training sessions. I reduced the intensity and frequency of my activities. But the pain didn't stop and soon became unbearable... A blood test was enough to put a name to my disease: Ankylosing Spondylitis. My dream was shattered when I realized what it meant...

Impact on social life

Most of the time, it is a latent suffering that is not always obvious to family and friends. Patients are led to find a meaning to their pathology: we speak of a real teaching since they have to learn how to deal with it. It is necessary to admit that one is not in good health but to continue to live as normally as possible so as not to alter one's "taste for life".

Among family and friends, you must "dare" to show your illness and affirm it. The close entourage plays a key role in the acceptance of the disease and in the way the patient will perceive himself: they must really participate in the treatment of the chronic disease.

I suffer from familial hypercholesterolemia

"At 21 years old, I've had familial hypercholesterolemia since I was born. It is an hereditary disease. I was born with a very high level of "bad" cholesterol... Around 18, student life got the better of me: I ate less healthily and practiced less sport. To restore my cholesterol level, I had to follow a very strict diet that made me lose 10 kg in 3 months. I very quickly felt "excluded". People thought that my diet was only meant to make me lose weight, which many people didn't understand. 

The impact on working life

The professional environment is often an additional source of tension for people with chronic pathologies .

Pain, fatigue, or frequent medication use can be embarrassing for the patient who often refuses to be seen as "sick". In addition to having to reconcile work life with treatment or rehabilitation, the patient sometimes has to endure condescending looks from colleagues and sometimes has to deal with daily pressure from his or her hierarchy.

In any case, it is advisable to be as transparent as possible: communication will be decisive. Some companies may offer part-time jobs or adapt the employee's working hours and duties if his illness prevents him from performing certain tasks (e.g. carrying heavy loads). In some cases, however, sick leave is still the only solution, which will once again force the sick person to reorganize his or her life.

Testimonial :

At 43 years old, I am diabetic

"It took me a very long time to accept my illness. At first, I had to take two shots, then I gradually had to go to five a day... At work, I had made the choice to hide the existence of my diabetes: I was hiding like a drug addict. And it's not easy in the workplace... When people see you taking out your "equipment", they often have a backsliding movement. This disease was forcing me to live a life without deviation, without insanity, and it isolated me socially.

The impact on intimate life

A fulfilled sexuality would be synonymous with good health and quality of life.

In the case of chronic illness, sexual functions are not impaired. However, the pain, depression or discouragement that sometimes surrounds the condition can lead to a loss of sexual desire and satisfaction. Communication within the couple is essential: talking to one's partner about what one is feeling (pain, self-loathing, etc...) is essential to avoid sexual frustration. It is advisable to have sex at a fixed time of day when the pain has subsided and when you feel most desirable. Tenderness within the couple outside of sexual intercourse will be essential to resume a fulfilling sexuality. Sexuality should not rhyme with "performance" but with self-discovery, discovery of the other and mutual fulfillment.

Testimonial :

I suffer from fibromyalgia

"I've had fibromyalgia for 12 years, but I've only been able to put a name to this disease for 5 years and it took many years to be diagnosed, at least in my case! It almost destroyed my relationship... At the beginning, I felt very tired but I blamed it on an intense family and professional life. Having 2 young children and a fascinating job, life was going at 100 per hour, and I had less and less time (and desire?) to devote to my spouse.

 Aspirin and Ibuprofen are regularly prescribed for the treatment of back pain. A recent Australian study has cast doubt on the real effectiveness of these substances.

Anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective in relieving back pain.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs dangerous for health?

Back pain is one of those pains that many French people face on a daily basis. Low back pain is also the leading cause of work disability among people under 45 years of age. Most of these people regularly use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or aspirin to relieve their pain.

New scientific research, published in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases by Australian researchers at the George Institute for Global Health, may well encourage these people to change their reflexes. Indeed, their studies have just proven that these analgesics would have more harmful effects on the body than they would provide relief from back pain.

Is paracetamol as effective as a placebo?

By taking NSAIDs too frequently, patients run the risk of suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding. These substances also increase the risk of developing cardiovascular problems.

What about other substances such as paracetamol? Science is also not optimistic about the real benefits of this molecule. A study conducted in 2015 and covering three clinical trials, showed that patients treated with paracetamol observed an effect only slightly higher than those who took only a placebo. A conclusion that is not very pleasing for patients: "it is now clear that the most widely used and recommended substances for back pain do not provide significantly better clinical effects than placebos", the authors state in their publication.

 According to the balance sheet of the Accidents at Work - Occupational Diseases (AT-MP) branch of the Social Security, the number of occupational accidents fell in 2016 compared to 2015. However, more and more employees are suffering from back pain.

back pain at work

More and more people suffer from back pain at work

Would back pain be the evil of the century for workers? While the number of work-related accidents has dropped significantly in one year (33.8 cases per 1,000 employees in 2016, compared with 33.9 cases in 2015), low back pain is clearly on the rise. In 2016, it accounted for 20% of work-related accidents, 7 points more than in 2005. The people who suffer the most back pain include construction and public works employees.

But this is not the only sector affected: people working in the human services sector are experiencing an increase in work stoppages due to low back pain. According to the report, there has even been a 45% increase in accidents in this sector over the past ten years. Not surprisingly, caring for the elderly or disabled can be very strenuous.

1 billion euros for health insurance

These low back pain conditions are to be taken seriously, as sufferers have to stop working for an average of two months. This represents a cost for the company but also for the Social Security. In total, according to this balance sheet, low back pain costs the Health Insurance 1 billion euros. Together with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and asbestos-related pathologies, this is the largest compensation item.

MSDs, which are generally due to repetitive movements, have however declined by 4% in one year. As for asbestos-related diseases, they decreased by 9.5%. Along with low back pain, the illnesses that are increasing in the world of work are mental illnesses: in 2016, the Social Security system received three times as many requests for coverage as in 2011. Requests following what is now known as "burn-out". 

 1- Fibre is generally very good for health and it is advisable to consume it throughout the year. There are two classes of fibre: soluble and insoluble. Insoluble fibre, if not consumed in excess, stimulates intestinal transit and limits constipation, which is often accompanied by bloating. Insoluble fibre is found in whole grains, wheat bran, almonds, nuts, fruits and vegetables or flaxseed, for example.


2 - Fennel

Fennel is very effective in the fight against digestive disorders. It should preferably be eaten between meals:

  • in the form of seeds: 1 to 2 g of fennel, 3 times a day;
  • in infusion: 1 to 3 g of dried seeds infused in boiling water for 5 to 10 minutes, 3 times a day ;
  • in tincture: 5 to 15 ml 3 times a day;
  • as essential oil: 0.1 to 0.6 ml per day.

3 - Avoid certain foods or drinks

Certain foods are directly responsible for bloating. Chewing gum and soft drinks are among them. Bloating is related to an accumulation of air or gas in the intestines, causing swelling. Soft drinks release gas into the digestive tract and contribute to this feeling of bloating. Chewing gum should also be avoided because it causes the digestive system to run "empty".  This causes air to build up in the digestive tract, which leads to bloating.

Vegetable charcoal, or activated carbon, is a black powder obtained from the high-temperature calcination of wood, coconut shells or olive pits. The purpose of this carbonization is to purify the vegetable matter and increase its porosity, these pores having the ability to contain gases. Vegetable charcoal therefore has many therapeutic virtues on the digestive system. It can, among other things, absorb up to 100 times its volume in gas, and thus eliminate gases due to fermentation to relieve bloating.

5 - Eat gently and chew well

It is important to take at least 20 minutes to eat. Eating too quickly and not chewing enough will tend to cause stomach aches and bloating. Chewing food properly helps digestion and reduces the risk of aerophagia (= ingestion of air in the stomach and oesophagus).

Also try to reduce your stress level because when you are nervous you tend to eat faster which makes digestion more difficult and the risk of bloating greater.


6 - Using homeopathy

In case of bloating, homeopathy also offers solutions. The Carbo Vegetalis 5CH, or vegetable charcoal, gives good results at a rate of 3 homeopathic granules 30min to 1h before the meal. 

China Rubra 9H is recommended in case of bloated and tense belly, at a rate of 5 granules 2 to 3 times a day. Nux Vomica or Vomic Nut is recommended in case of abdominal pain due to bloating, at a rate of 5 granules 2 to 3 times a day.

Bloating can be caused by intolerance to certain foods and in particular to FODMAP (= so-called fermentable foods, oligosaccharides (fructans), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose) and polyols). If you suffer from chronic bloating, it is advisable to reduce these food classes for a month and gradually reintroduce them to identify which ones may cause bloating.

  • Foods with a high fructan content: asparagus, garlic (in large quantities), leek, onion, wheat (in large quantities)
  • Foods with a high lactose content: milk and certain dairy products, margarine, unrefined soft cheeses (= ricotta, cottage, mascarpone)
  • Foods with a high oligosaccharide content: legumes, lentils, chickpeas
  • Foods with high fructose content: honey, apple, mango, pear
  • Foods with high polyol content: apple, apricot, avocado, cherry, nectarine, pear, plum, mushrooms, sorbitol, xylitol.

8 - Limit the foods that can ferment

Some foods that contain a large amount of carbohydrates, such as polysaccharides or oligosaccharides, can cause symptoms similar to those of irritable bowel syndrome, including bloating and gas production caused by the fermentation of these carbohydrates. If you have identified these foods as the cause of your bloating, it is advisable to avoid broccoli, cabbage, turnip, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, lentils, peas and dried beans, among others.

 While the physiotherapist (or kinesiologist) tends to rehabilitate a part of the body damaged in the muscles or joints (sprain, crack) and to relieve pain through massage (in Canada, this is called massage therapy), the osteopath works on the whole body. He or she feels the body to detect tensions or imbalances that can cause certain discomforts or illnesses.

Pain in the back

If the cause of the pain is known for sure (such as the aftermath of an accident), it is better to go see a physiotherapist who will be able to tell you exactly what type of massage or exercise to apply. On the other hand, if the origin is more unclear, an osteopath can be a good way to identify the cause of the pain and remedy it.

Physiotherapy, which is part of the paramedical field, means "treatment through movement". Osteopathy, considered as an unconventional medicine, allows, by working on the different parts of the patient's body, to relieve ailments such as depression, tinnitus, intestinal functional disorders (constipation, heartburn, etc.). One to three sessions are generally sufficient to remedy the problem for which the patient is consulting, whereas physiotherapy sessions are often done at a minimum of 5 to 10 sessions.

March 10, 2009 - Exercises and running shoes instead of a scalpel? The most effective treatment for lower back pain is physical therapy with over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) when needed, according to a recent review of studies1.

Back pain

Lower back pain is mainly caused by degeneration

1 Lower back pain is mainly caused by degeneration of the lumbar discs. This pain is mainly caused by aging and wear and tear (repetitive activity), but can also occur following shock. The lumbar disc, the small cushion between the vertebrae, loses its elasticity and collapses. According to the authors of the study, 70% to 85% of adults will one day suffer from low back pain.

In the forty or so studies analyzed, different surgical procedures to treat chronic lower back pain were studied: intradiscal thermal electrotherapy, epidural injection, arthrodesis and disc arthroplasty. But in the majority of cases, the researchers point out, these treatments are not necessary since physical therapy is sufficient to relieve the pain.

The exercises performed must be used to strengthen the abdominal and lumbar muscles. The muscles thus provide better support for the spine and contribute to better posture, in addition to improving flexibility and blood flow.

These results come as no surprise to Richard Chevalier, a specialist in exercise physiology and author of numerous books on physical activity: "In many cases, physical exercise can help regenerate the intervertebral discs, which are then better irrigated and better nourished. »

However, the choice of exercises is important: they should not make the situation worse. "If you have a back problem, certain types of exercises are not recommended. In addition, it is important to maintain a balance between back and abdominal muscle mass to keep the pelvis in proper alignment with the spine. That's why it's recommended that you consult a physiotherapist or kinesiologist who can prescribe exercises that will actually do some good," he recommends.


 Back pain has a very high prevalence, which is why it is called a 21st century ailment. Its causes and symptoms can be very varied, but it is lumbago, an often non-serious condition located in the lower back, that is the most prevalent. It is estimated that more than 80% of people will eventually suffer from low back pain. Discover the natural solutions that can relieve back pain.

Natural solutions for back pain

Osteopathy, the preferred therapy for back pain

Osteopathy is a therapy that consists of palpating the body to detect tensions or imbalances that cause discomfort and disease. Its use is widely recognized in the relief of back pain.

A study conducted in 20131 compared the effectiveness of osteopathy in the treatment of back pain, compared to a placebo equivalent, on 455 people suffering from chronic low back pain (constant pain that lasts more than 3 months) for 12 weeks. Results showed that osteopathy provided more relief from low back pain than its placebo equivalent, and patients who received osteopathy sessions used less pain medication than patients in the placebo group during the 12-week observation period.

Another study2 tested osteopathy in patients also suffering from chronic low back pain, but of varying intensity. The results were measured using a questionnaire. At the end of 12 weeks, they showed that osteopathy had reduced the pain felt by the patients, and to a greater extent the high intensity pain.

Chiropractic to relieve low back pain

Chiropractic consists of manipulations to the cervical, dorsal and lumbar regions and other parts of the body in order to adjust the vertebrae, clear blockages and restore physiological balance.

A Swedish study carried out in 20121 observed the effectiveness of chiropractic in cases of acute low back pain (pain of short duration, up to 4 weeks) and chronic low back pain. The patients observed, who had not undergone any particular therapy in the 3 months prior to the start of the study, followed 3 months of chiropractic care and completed a questionnaire and pain assessment scale at different points in the study. Overall, whether they had chronic low back pain or acute low back pain, patients recognized an improvement in their pain within the first week of therapy, although those with acute low back pain reported greater relief. These results were confirmed at the end of 3 months, where all patients experienced overall improvement, with acute low back pain being relieved more quickly than chronic low back pain.

Another study conducted in 2014 tested chiropractic care for pregnancy-related back pain2 , in which 115 pregnant women had chiropractic sessions for 3 months and were then followed up for up to one year after the start of the study. Results were estimated using a questionnaire and a pain assessment scale. At the end of one week, the pain of 52% of them had improved, 70% of them at 1 month, 85% at 3 months, 90% at 6 months and 88% at 1 year.

Massage therapy to treat subacute or chronic low back pain

Massage therapy is a therapy using massage, the main objectives of which are to promote relaxation (muscular and nervous), blood and lymphatic circulation, assimilation and digestion of food, elimination of toxins and the proper functioning of vital organs. It therefore has many fields of action, such as reducing anxiety, or reducing the risk of injury to the perineum during childbirth, but it could also help relieve lower back pain.

In a study conducted in 20141 , 30 women suffering from subacute low back pain (pain that generally lasts from 4 weeks to 3 months) or chronic low back pain had sessions of either massage therapy or more conventional therapy. The results showed that massage therapy reduced low back pain more significantly than conventional therapy.

A group of studies2 compared the results of several studies on the effectiveness of massage therapy on low back pain. The results of this research suggest that massage therapy is effective for low back pain when compared to placebo, especially in the short term. However, its effectiveness is controversial when compared to acupuncture or conventional medical management.

Acupuncture effective on back pain in the elderly

Acupuncture is one of the five branches of traditional Chinese medicine. It aims to strengthen the self-regulating and healing processes that malfunction when the body is subjected to aggression. Stimulation of certain acupuncture points - often with needles - is used to treat various problems, including back pain.

A group of 32 studies conducted in 20131 attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture on low back pain. In general, acupuncture significantly reduces the pain experienced by patients compared to its placebo equivalent. When compared with drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics) and standard treatment, differences were noticeable but too small to provide clinical evidence of the superiority of acupuncture over conventional treatments.

Acupuncture was also studied more specifically in elderly people in a study conducted in 20142 for its effectiveness on back and knee pain. 32 patients (24 women and 8 men) with an average age of 69 years for women and 73 years for men received 10 acupuncture sessions, with one session every 2 days. The results showed that lower back pain was significantly reduced.

Yoga to relax the back

Yoga, among many other techniques, is part of the mind-body approach. It is a method of personal development and a science of spiritual practice. Body-mind approaches have the advantage of helping patients to better manage their stress, to relax and to have a positive attitude, in order to relieve chronic pain. In addition to contributing to the treatment of asthma, the improvement of cardiovascular health, among others, this discipline would help to relax the back and would therefore have benefits on low back pain.

In a study conducted in 20141, 95 adults aged 20 to 64 years and suffering from low back pain received either 1 or 2 yoga sessions of 75 minutes each per week for 12 weeks. Regardless of the group, the intensity of the pain, age or gender, yoga reduced the participants' low back pain, according to the questionnaire they were asked to fill out.

In another study conducted in 20152 that sought to compare the cost-effectiveness of several therapies, 159 participants with low back pain were divided into 3 groups: 52 in a yoga group, 52 in an exercise group, and 55 in a self-care counselling group. After 6 weeks of observation, yoga was found to be the most cost-effective treatment for low back pain compared to the other two therapies.

Tai-chi to relieve acute low back pain

Tai-chi is a body discipline of Chinese origin which is part of the mind-body approach. This practice aims to improve flexibility, strengthen the musculoskeletal system and maintain good physical, mental and spiritual health. It would thus contribute to reduce lower back pain.

In a study carried out in 20111, 160 people aged 18 to 70 years and suffering from persistent low back pain either participated in Tai-chi sessions (18 sessions of 40 minutes delivered over a period of 10 weeks) or received traditional care. On a 10-point scale, the discomfort caused by low back pain was reduced by 1.7 points in the Tai-chi group, pain was reduced by 1.3 points, and the feeling of disability was reduced by 2.6 points on a scale of 0 to 24.

In another study carried out in 20142 , the effects of Tai-chi were evaluated on 40 men between 20 and 30 years old suffering from acute low back pain. Half of them followed Tai-chi sessions while the other half followed stretching sessions, 3 sessions of 1 hour per week for 4 weeks. Pain was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale, a scale from 0 to 10 that allows the patient to self-assess the intensity of the pain he or she is experiencing. Participants in the Tai Chi group had their Visual Analog Scale increased from 3.1 to 2.1, while in the stretching group, the Visual Analog Scale increased on average from 3.4 to 2.8.

 Natural hair removal techniques (tweezers, wax, oriental, thread...) do not destroy the bulb in which the hair is made, but only allow the hair to be pulled out of the skin. The hair grows back after depilation. Natural depilations are therefore not permanent depilations.

Hair removal

1. Epilation with tweezers or threads

It simply consists of pulling out the hairs in small quantities or individually with pliers or wire. It thus makes it possible to select which hair(s) you want to pull out, but it is long and tedious.

Mostly used on the face, threading is a method consisting of tying a knot with a small thread and pulling on both sides to trap hairs and pull them out. It's tedious, and is most often performed by people who have been trained to do it.

2. Oriental hair removal

It is an ancestral technique, consisting in making a kind of caramel using sugar, water and lemon juice: lump sugar (three handfuls of sugar for half a glass of water) is heated until a brown caramel is obtained. Then add a few drops of lemon juice and immerse the preparation in cold water. A ball of the preparation is formed and applied to the area to be depilated by spreading it out and then pulled out abruptly to remove the stuck hairs.

3. Waxing

It is a technique derived from oriental hair removal, which also consists of burying the hairs in cold or hot wax and pulling it quickly to extract the hairs from their bulb.

  • Cold wax is generally used when you don't have access to other waxes (vacation, travel...) because it is often sticky and leaves wax deposits on the skin. It generally requires several passages in the same place to be effective.
  • Warm wax generally requires only one passage because its warming effect is very effective.
  • relaxes the skin
  • softens hair
  • dilates the hair follicles, which facilitates hair extraction.

Wax in pots and roll-on waxes are available on the market. Roll-on waxes are often more expensive, but they allow better control of the temperature of the wax than pots and make thinner wax strips that are easier to remove.

4. Pumice stone hair removal

This ancient method is mainly applied to the legs and thighs. It consists of very gently rubbing the area with a smooth pumice stone in small circular movements to "grate" the hair (in this case, we can no longer speak of hair removal), or even to dislodge it from its bulb. The advantage is that it exfoliates the skin (the skin becomes softer) but it is also possible to observe skin irritation if the friction is too strong.

When a hair is pulled out of its bulb, there is a risk of bacteria entering the bulb, which can cause an infection of the hair (folliculitis), but can also interfere with the growth of the hair in the bulb. A hair usually grows at an angle to the skin, so that the hair on the legs grows down. The hair can then become incarnate.

Many techniques have been developed to make life easier for people who want to wax. Some of them even make it possible to destroy the bulb in which the hair is made, in which case the hair is said to be permanently destroyed.

1. Electric depilator

An electric depilator is a small device, usually about the size of a razor, that removes hair as it passes. This technique, however, exposes to the risk of folliculitis if the device and the skin are not properly disinfected, and to ingrown hairs if the hair is not pulled out in the direction of hair growth.

2. Electric depilation

Electric hair removal is performed by the dermatologist in the office. It consists of inserting a very fine needle into the root canal that contains the hair, up to the bulb, and destroying the hair root with an electric current. This technique is tedious and painful.

3. Laser hair removal

The laser is a device that emits a beam of photons with a single wavelength (monochromatic). This is the wavelength absorbed by the hair pigment, melanin, which has the effect of heating the hair and destroying it (this is called selective photothermolysis)1,2. Laser hair removal therefore works especially on dark hair in the growth phase, containing a lot of melanin. Approximately 20% of all hair is in the growth phase. This has two practical consequences:

It is necessary to perform several sessions in the same place (generally 5 to 8 sessions) before obtaining hair removal of the majority of the hair in the area.

And the sessions should be spaced 3 to 8 weeks apart in order to obtain a new quota of hairs in the growth phase.

This is a medical procedure that should be performed by a doctor only, trained in this technique.

The main risk of laser hair removal is skin burns. This has two major origins:

the removal of hair from an area rich in pigment (this is the case of the skin of the genital area for bikini waxing, for example) or tanned skin: the laser beam is absorbed by the melanin present in large quantities in these cases, the skin then absorbs the beam, the melanin is destroyed and the result is a clear spot, most often regressive with local care. You should therefore never have a hair removal session when you have tanned skin. Similarly, it is recommended that you do not expose yourself for about 2-3 weeks after the session, as long as redness persists, to avoid brown spots.

the use of high fluences during the last sessions in an attempt to destroy the terminal follicles

4. Intense Pulsed Light (I.P.L.) hair removal

IPL delivers photons of several wavelengths (polychromatic beam) to which a filter is applied to allow only those photons with the wavelength absorbed by melanin to pass through.

The IPL is therefore a little less specific to the hair than the laser, but it acts in the same way and carries approximately the same risks. It is also often less expensive.

- To limit the risk of folliculitis, the skin should be washed with soap and water before the session, ideally with a sponge glove to loosen the hair from the skin, but also after the session. If an instrument (tweezers, thread, etc.) is used, it must be disinfected before depilation with a mild antiseptic such as chlorhexhidine gluconate (hexhidine acqueuse®, Baseal®, Biorgaspet®, Diaseptyl®, etc.).

- To avoid ingrown hairs, it is recommended that you do not pull out the hairs at the "turning point". The hairs grow obliquely to the skin and should be pulled out in the direction of their growth. When using wax or oriental preparation, the product should be applied in the opposite direction of growth and pulled out in the direction of growth (e.g. downwards on the legs).

You can find devices on the Internet for a few hundred euros, which are small lasers or IPLs.

There are several problems with these devices3 :

  • Few have been the subject of scientific evaluation studies;
  • The devices are very variable in terms of emission quality;
  • Their fluences are often very low, making it possible to remove only a small amount of hair at a time, and exposing subjects to the risk of paradoxical regrowth (appearance of new hair in the depilated area);
  • All of these devices require ophthalmological protection with glasses provided (if the beam reaches the retina, it creates irreversible lesions there). There is a risk of ophthalmologic accidents by not respecting or simply forgetting to wear the glasses by the user.

"Laser hair removal practiced by doctors allows a significant reduction of hair over large areas.

Any Laser or IPL hair removal must be preceded by a consultation in order to judge the potential risks and failures of these techniques: even if they allow for the permanent destruction of the hair, it is possible that genetic or hormonal factors may cause other hairs to grow on the depilated area. »